Destructuring and Spreading

Published on : August 13,2022
Destructuring and Spreading

Hi dev,

In this article we will learn about Destructuring and Spreading in javascript.

 

What is Destructuring?

Destructuring is a way to unpack arrays, and objects and assigning to a distinct variable. Destructuring allows us to write clean and readable code.

 

What can we destructure?

  1. Arrays
  2. Objects

 

1. Destructuring arrays

Arrays are a list of different data types ordered by their index. Let's see an example of arrays:

const numbers = [1, 2, 3]
const countries = ['Finland', 'Sweden', 'Norway']

We can access an item from an array using a certain index by iterating through the loop or manually as shown in the example below.

Accessing array items using a loop

for (const number of numbers) {
  console.log(number)
}

for (const country of countries) {
  console.log(country)
}

Accessing array items manually

const numbers = [1, 2, 3]
let num1 = numbers[0]
let num2 = numbers[1]
let num3 = numbers[2]
console.log(num1, num2, num3) // 1, 2, 3

const countries = ['Finland', 'Sweden', 'Norway']
let fin = countries[0]
let swe = countries[1]
let nor = countries[2]
console.log(fin, swe, nor) // Finland, Sweden, Norway

Most of the time the size of an array is big and we use a loop to iterate through each item of the arrays. Sometimes, we may have short arrays. If the array size is very short it is ok to access the items manually as shown above but today we will see a better way to access the array item which is destructuring.

Accessing array items using destructuring

const numbers = [1, 2, 3]
const [num1, num2, num3] = numbers
console.log(num1, num2, num3) // 1, 2, 3,

const constants = [2.72, 3.14, 9.81,37, 100]
const [e, pi, gravity, bodyTemp, boilingTemp] = constants
console.log(e, pi, gravity, bodyTemp, boilingTemp]
// 2.72, 3.14, 9.81, 37,100
const countries = ['Finland', 'Sweden', 'Norway']
const [fin, swe, nor] = countries
console.log(fin, swe, nor) // Finland, Sweden, Norway

During destructuring each variable should match with the index of the desired item in the array. For instance, the variable fin matches to index 0 and the variable nor matches to index 2. What would be the value of den if you have a variable den next nor?

const [fin, swe, nor, den] = countries
console.log(den) // undefined

If you tried the above task you confirmed that the value is undefined. Actually, we can pass a default value to the variable, and if the value of that specific index is undefined the default value will be used.

const countries = ['Finland', 'Sweden', undefined, 'Norway']
const [fin, swe, ice = 'Iceland', nor, den = 'Denmark'] = countries
console.log(fin, swe, ice, nor, den) // Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Denmark

Destructuring Nested arrays

const fullStack = [
  ['HTML', 'CSS', 'JS', 'React'],
  ['Node', 'Express', 'MongoDB']
]

const [frontEnd, backEnd] = fullstack
console.log(frontEnd, backEnd)

//["HTML", "CSS", "JS", "React"] , ["Node", "Express", "MongoDB"]

const fruitsAndVegetables = [['banana', 'orange', 'mango', 'lemon'],  ['Tomato', 'Potato', 'Cabbage', 'Onion', 'Carrot']]

const [fruits, vegetables] = fruitsAndVegetables
console.log(fruits, vegetables]

//['banana', 'orange', 'mango', 'lemon']

//['Tomato', 'Potato', 'Cabbage', 'Onion', 'Carrot']

Skipping an Item during destructuring

During destructuring if we are not interested in every item, we can omit a certain item by putting a comma at that index. Let's get only Finland, Iceland, and Denmark from the array. See the example below for more clarity:

const countries = ['Finland', 'Sweden', 'Iceland', 'Norway', 'Denmark']
const [fin, , ice, , den] = countries
console.log(fin, ice, den) // Finland, Iceland, Denmark

Getting the rest of the array using the spread operator We use three dots(...) to spread or get the rest of an array during destructuring

const nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
const [num1, num2, num3, ...rest] = nums
console.log(num1, num2, num3, rest) //1, 2, 3, [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

const countries = [
  'Germany',
  'France',
  'Belgium',
  'Finland',
  'Sweden',
  'Norway',
  'Denmark',
  'Iceland',
]

let [gem, fra, , ...nordicCountries] = countries
console.log(gem, fra, nordicCountries)
// Germany, France,  ["Finland", "Sweden", "Norway", "Denmark", "Iceland"]

There many cases in which we use array destructuring, let's see the following example:

Destructuring when we loop through arrays

const countries = [
  ['Finland', 'Helsinki'],
  ['Sweden', 'Stockholm'],
  ['Norway', 'Oslo'],
]

for (const [country, city] of countries) {
  console.log(country, city)
}

const fullStack = [
  ['HTML', 'CSS', 'JS', 'React'],
  ['Node', 'Express', 'MongoDB'],
]

for (const [first, second, third, fourth] of fullStack) {
  console.log(first, second, third, fourt)
}

What do you think about the code snippet below? If you have started React Hooks already it may remind you of the useState hook.

const [x, y] = [2, (value) => value ** 2]

What is the value of x? And what is the value of y(x)? I leave this for you to figure out.

If you have used react hooks you are very familiar with this and as you may imagine it is destructuring. The initial value of count is 0 and the setCount is a method that changes the value of count.

const [count, setCount] = useState(0)

 

Now, you know how to destructure arrays. Let's move on to destructuring objects.

 

2. Destructuring objects

An object literal is made of key and value pairs. A very simple example of an object:

const rectangle = {
  width: 20,
  height: 10,
}

We access the value of an object using the following methods:

const rectangle = {
  width: 20,
  height: 10,
}

let width = rectangle.width
let height = recangle.height

// or

let width = rectangle[width]
let height = recangle[height]

But today, we will see how to access the value of an object using destructuring.

When we destructure an object the name of the variable should be exactly the same as the key or property of the object. See the example below.

const rectangle = {
  width: 20,
  height: 10,
}

let { width, height } = rectangle
console.log(width, height, perimeter) // 20, 10

What will be the value of we try to access a key which not in the object.

const rectangle = {
  width: 20,
  height: 10,
}

let { width, height, perimeter } = rectangleconsole.log(
  width,
  height,
  perimeter
) // 20, 10, undefined

The value of the perimeter in the above example is undefined.

Default value during object destructuring

Similar to the array, we can also use a default value in object destructuring.

const rectangle = {
  width: 20,
  height: 10,
}

let { width, height, perimeter = 200 } = rectangle
console.log(width, height, perimeter) // 20, 10, undefined

Renaming variable names

const rectangle = {
  width: 20,
  height: 10,
}

let { width: w, height: h } = rectangle

Let's also destructure, nested objects. In the example below, we have nested objects and we can destructure it in two ways.

We can just destructure step by step

const props = {
  user:{
    firstName:'Asabeneh',
    lastName:'Yetayeh',
    age:250
  },
  post:{
    title:'Destructuring and Spread',
    subtitle:'ES6',
    year:2020
},
skills:['JS', 'React', 'Redux', 'Node', 'Python']

}
}

const {user, post, skills} = props
const {firstName, lastName, age} = user
const {title, subtitle, year} = post
const [skillOne, skillTwo, skillThree, skillFour, skillFive] = skills
  1. We can destructure it one step
const props = {
  user:{
    firstName:'Asabeneh',
    lastName:'Yetayeh',
    age:250
  },
  post:{
    title:'Destructuring and Spread',
    subtitle:'ES6',
    year:2020
},
skills:['JS', 'React', 'Redux', 'Node', 'Python']

}

}

const {user:{firstName, lastName, age}, post:{title, subtitle, year}, skills:[skillOne, skillTwo, skillThree, skillFour, skillFive]} = props

Destructuring during loop through an array

const languages = [
  { lang: 'English', count: 91 },
  { lang: 'French', count: 45 },
  { lang: 'Arabic', count: 25 },
  { lang: 'Spanish', count: 24 },
  { lang: 'Russian', count: 9 },
  { lang: 'Portuguese', count: 9 },
  { lang: 'Dutch', count: 8 },
  { lang: 'German', count: 7 },
  { lang: 'Chinese', count: 5 },
  { lang: 'Swahili', count: 4 },
  { lang: 'Serbian', count: 4 },
]

for (const { lang, count } of languages) {
  console.log(`The ${lang} is spoken in ${count} countries.`)
}

Destructuring function parameter

const rectangle = { width: 20, height: 10 }
const calcualteArea = ({ width, height }) => width * height
const calculatePerimeter = ({ width, height } = 2 * (width + height))

 

Exercises

Create a function called getPersonInfo. The getPersonInfo function takes an object parameter. The structure of the object and the output of the function is given below. Try to use both a regular way and destructuring and compare the cleanness of the code. If you want to compare your solution with my solution, check this link.

const person = {
  firstName: 'Asabeneh',
  lastName: 'Yetayeh',
  age: 250,
  country: 'Finland',
  job: 'Instructor and Developer',
  skills: [
    'HTML',
    'CSS',
    'JavaScript',
    'React',
    'Redux',
    'Node',
    'MongoDB',
    'Python',
    'D3.js',
  ],
  languages: ['Amharic', 'English', 'Suomi(Finnish)'],
}

/*
Asabeneh Yetayeh lives in Finland. He is  250 years old. He is an Instructor and Developer. He teaches HTML, CSS, JavaScript, React, Redux, Node, MongoDB, Python and D3.js. He speaks Amharic, English and a little bit of Suomi(Finnish)
*/

 

Spread or Rest Operator

When we destructure an array we use the spread operator(...) to get the rest elements as array. In addition to that we use spread operator to spread arr elements to another array.

 

Spread operator to get the rest of array elements

const nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
let [num1, num2, num3, ...rest] = nums
​
console.log(num1, num2, num3)
console.log(rest)
1 2 3
[4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
const countries = [
  'Germany',
  'France',
  'Belgium',
  'Finland',
  'Sweden',
  'Norway',
  'Denmark',
  'Iceland',
]

let [gem, fra, , ...nordicCountries] = countries

console.log(gem)
console.log(fra)
console.log(nordicCountries)

Germany France ["Finland", "Sweden", "Norway", "Denmark", "Iceland"]

 

Spread operator to copy array

const evens = [0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10]
const evenNumbers = [...evens]

const odds = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9]
const oddNumbers = [...odds]

const wholeNumbers = [...evens, ...odds]

console.log(evenNumbers)
console.log(oddNumbers)
console.log(wholeNumbers)
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10]
[1, 3, 5, 7, 9]
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9]
const frontEnd = ['HTML', 'CSS', 'JS', 'React']
const backEnd = ['Node', 'Express', 'MongoDB']
const fullStack = [...frontEnd, ...backEnd]

console.log(fullStack)
["HTML", "CSS", "JS", "React", "Node", "Express", "MongoDB"]

 

Spread operator to copy object

We can copy an object using a spread operator

const user = {
  name: 'Asabeneh',
  title: 'Programmer',
  country: 'Finland',
  city: 'Helsinki',
}

const copiedUser = { ...user }
console.log(copiedUser)
{name: "Asabeneh", title: "Programmer", country: "Finland", city: "Helsinki"}

Modifying or changing the object while copying

const user = {
  name: 'Asabeneh',
  title: 'Programmer',
  country: 'Finland',
  city: 'Helsinki',
}

const copiedUser = { ...user, title: 'instructor' }
console.log(copiedUser)
{name: "Asabeneh", title: "instructor", country: "Finland", city: "Helsinki"}

 

Spread operator with arrow function

Whenever we like to write an arrow function which takes unlimited number of arguments we use a spread operator. If we use a spread operator as a parameter, the argument passed when we invoke a function will change to an array.

const sumAllNums = (...args) => {
  console.log(args)
}

sumAllNums(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
const sumAllNums = (...args) => {
  let sum = 0
  for (const num of args) {
    sum += num
  }
  return sum
}

console.log(sumAllNums(1, 2, 3, 4, 5))
15


 

Hope it can help you…

Categories : JavaScript

Tags : JavaScript

Praful Sangani
Praful Sangani
I'm a passionate full-stack developer with expertise in PHP, Laravel, Angular, React Js, Vue, Node, Javascript, JQuery, Codeigniter, and Bootstrap. I enjoy sharing my knowledge by writing tutorials and providing tips to others in the industry. I prioritize consistency and hard work, and I always aim to improve my skills to keep up with the latest advancements. As the owner of Open Code Solution, I'm committed to providing high-quality services to help clients achieve their business goals.


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